1. Subject + Predicate: e.g. Traffic is a major cause of pollution.
  2. Subject + Verb: e.g. Tom yawned.
  3. Subject + Verb + Object: e.g. Tom opened the door.
  4. Subject + Verb + Complement: e.g. Tom is ready.
  5. Subject + Verb + Adverbial: e.g. Tom lives in China.
  6. Subject + Verb + Object + Object: e.g. Tom gave me a pen.
  7. Subject + Verb + Object + Complement: e.g. Tom got a shoe wet.
  8. Subject + Verb + Object + Adverbial: e.g. Tom put the box on the table.

Complex sentence

  1. Main clause + Subordinate clause: e.g. Hong Kong's air pollution has become worse since industry expanded in the Pearl River Delta.


  1. Simple Present: e.g. The sun rises in the east.
  2. Present Continuous: e.g. At this moment Tom is watching a movie.
  3. Simple Past: e.g. Tom visited Macau last night.
  4. Past Continuous: e.g. During the spring of 2003 Tom was travelling in China.
  5. Present Perfect: e.g. I have passed the exam.
  6. Present Perfect Continuous: e.g. Mary has been studying for her exam.
  7. Past Perfect: e.g. Susan had left when I arrived.
  8. Past Perfect Continuous: e.g. Tom had been watching TV before his brother returned home.